Agnimantha

Clerodendrum phlomidis (Vebenaceaea)[edit]

<a href="http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arni_(Clerodendrum_phlomidis)_at_Sindhrot_near_Vadodara,_Gujrat_Pix_048.jpg"><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Arni_%28Clerodendrum_phlomidis%29_at_Sindhrot_near_Vadodara%2C_Gujrat_Pix_048.jpg" alt="Clerodendrum phlomidis" title="Clerodendrum phlomidis" width="350" height="350" align="right" ></a>

Sanskrit Names: Agnimantha, Vasuka
English Name: None known
Hindi: Karandi, Kota-khursi, Ginani, Baker
Botanical Name: Clerodendrum phlomidis Lin (also known as Premna micronata Roxb. or Prema integrifolia Linn)
Synonyms: Agnimantha; indicating its heating action (agni), Jayã, muñja, ganikãrikã, vaijayanti
Family: Vebenaceaea

Description[edit]

Agnimantha appears as a large shrub or small tree up to nine meters in height with yellow bark and brown woody aromatic root. Leaves – simple leaves, opposite, ovate, membranous and irregularly toothed. Flowers – small greenish white with strong disagreeable odour. Fruits: Glabrous, black when ripened and saucer shaped calyx surrounding the base. Varieties - Two varieties; large variety known as Agnimantha, small variety known as Tarkari.

Principle Constituents[edit]


Classical Categories (Gana)[edit]

Caraka Ganas: Shotahara, Shitaprashamana, Anuvasanopaga, Swayathuhara
Susruta Ganas: Maha Panchamula, Bruhat Panchamula Vatasanshamana, Viratavadi, Varunadi

Energetics[edit]

Rasa (taste): Tikta (bitter), Katu (pungent), Kashaya (astringent), Madhura (sweet)
Guna (quality): Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
Virya (energy): Ushna (heating)
Vipaka (post digestive effect): Katu (pungent)
Prabhava (Special quality): None
Dosha Effect: KV-
Dhatus (tissues):
Srotas (channels): Annavaha, Raktavaha, Purishavaha

Chemical Constituents[edit]

C. Phloidis - Prectolinarigenin, scutellarin, aspigenin, hospidulin, clerosterol, clerodin, lerodendrin A, Cerolic acid, Ceryl alcohol, raffinose
P. integrofolia - B-sitosterol, luteolin (leaves); aphelandrine), premnine, betulin, ganikarine, caryophellen, premnenmol, premnaspirodiene

Ayurveda Actions[edit]

Anulomana expels downwards
Deepana stimulates agni
Kaphaghna pacifies kapha
Pachana digests ama)
Pramehaghna anti-diabetic
Rakta shodhaka purifies blood
Vedanasthapana prevents ageing

Important Actions:[edit]

Good in dysentery, Irritable Bowl Syndrome, difficulty in urinating, hemeroids.

Indications[edit]

Vata vyadhi – vata disorders, Ama -toxins, Vibanda - constipation, Kasa - cought, Swasa - asthma, Pratishyaya, Diabetes, Anemia

External use[edit]

Ushna (heating) property helps in clearing obstruction of the channels and acts as anti-inflammatory and analgesic. The paste of the leaves is used for sprains.

Internal use[edit]

Circulatory system: Best anti-inflammatory drug.
Digestive system: Its appetizing, digesting and laxative properties are useful in loss of appetite, ama-dosha and constipation.
Nervous System: Used in neuralgia and acts as an analgesic; chiefly used in vata disorders.
Respiratory system: It is kaphaghna (alleviates kapha) and acts on diseases caused by obstruction of respiratory system by vitiated kapha e.g. cough, asthma and common cold.
Urinary system: It has effects on kapha, meda and urinary tract. Therefore useful in urinary disorders especially in chyluria. The decoction of root is used in pyuria.
Skin: Cures skin disorders. Pulp of its root is given orally in the treatment of urticaria, which has potential to check the pathogenesis of urticaria. The juice of leaves in a dose of 15 ml thrice daily is also useful in urticaria.

Precautions[edit]

None known

Safety[edit]

No drug-herb interactions known.

Parts Used[edit]

Parts used: Leaves, root bark
Dosage: Powder 0.5 – 3 gms. Decoction 50-100ml, juice 15-25ml.

Important Combinations[edit]

Agnimantha kashaya, Dashamularista

Research[edit]

Antifungal Activity of Clerodendrum inerme (L). and Clerodendrum phlomidis (L).[edit]

Abstract: The ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of Clerodendrum inerme and Clerodendrum phlomidis (Verbenaceae) were screened for antifungal activity. Both ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of C. phlomidis stem and leaf exhibited appreciable inhibition on all the studied plant and human pathogenic fungi. However, leaf hexane extract (1 mg/ml) of C. inerme inhibited the plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes. Full PDF paper is available at: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-06-30-3/biy-30-3-4-0510-4.pdf

Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of Clerodendrum phlomidis and Premna integrifolia Root[edit]

Author: R.H. Gokani, S.K. Lahiri, D.D Santani and M.B. Shah Source: International Journal of Pharmacology 3 (4): 352-356, 2007 Abstract: Roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. suppl. and Premna integrifolia Linn. Mant. (Verbanacea) are known under the common name Arni/Agnimantha. Roots of both the plants are important rasayana drugs and are considered to be useful in the treatment of variety of ailments. Roots of either of these two plants are incorporated as Arni/Agnimantha in many valued and popular Ayurvedic formulations. So the present study was aimed at evaluating the two roots for their immunomodulatory potential. Oral administration of methanol extracts of both the roots (300 mg kg-1 x 7 days) in mice prior to immunization with Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) resulted in a significant increase in haemagglutinating antibody titre, plaque forming cell assay and delayed type hypersensitivity to SRBC. C. phlomidis showed higher specific immune activity as compared to P. integrifolia, C. phlomidis and P. integrifolia enhanced the non specific immune response in carbon clearance test and showed significant immunoprophylactic effect, when tested on E. coli induced abdominal sepsis. In the present study C. phlomidis showed higher response to specific immune activity as compared to P. integrifolia, where as in case of non specific immune activity both the roots showed almost equal response. Full PDF paper is available at: http://www.ansijournals.com/ijp/2007/352-356.pdf